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Khalil Gibran Biograph

Posted by jupiter pada November 9, 2007

Khalil Gibran lahir di Bisherri Lebanon pada tanggal 6 Januari 1883. Masa remajanya dilintasi di kota Boston USA. Ia kembali ke Lebanon untuk mempelajari sastra Arab. Tahun 1905 karya-karyanya mulai bermunculan. Bukunya Sang Nabi menyebabkan nama Khalil Gibran jadi terkenal. Untuk memperluas pandangan sastra dan belajar melukis ia pergi ke Paris. Dari sana ia pindah ke New York dan mendirikan studio Pertapaan. Ia meninggal pada tanggal 10 April 1931.

Dalam buku Suara penyair dikatakannya Berkah amal saleh tumbuh subur dalam ladang hatiku. Aku akan menuai gandum dan membagikannya pada mereka yang lapar. Jiwaku menyuburkan ladang anggur yang kuperas buahnya dan kuberikan sarinya pada mereka yang kehausan. Surga telah mengisi pelitaku dengan minyaknya dan akan kuletakkan di jendela.

Agar musafir kelana di gelap malam menemukan jalannya. Kulakukan semua itu karena mereka adalah diriku. Andaikan nasib membelenggu tanganku dan aku tak bisa lagi menuruti hati nuraniku maka yang tertinggal dalam hasratku hanyalah Mati Aku seorang penyair apabila aku tak bisa memberi akupun tak mau menerima apa-apa.

Dalam kehidupan kita yang hiruk pikuk penuh deru campur debu dalam berpacu untuk punya ini punya itu dengarlah apa yang dikatakannya Harta benda yang tak punya batas membunuh manusia perlahan dengan kepuasan yang berbisa. Kasih sayang membangunkannya dan pedih peri nestapa membuka jiwanya.

Ia juga berpendapat Manusia terbagi dalam bangsa negara dan segala perbatasan. Tanah airku adalah alam semesta. Aku warganegara dunia kemanusiaan

Khalil Gibran menganjurkan orang untuk gemar membaca berpikir dan berpendapat. Untuk tidak picik dangkal fanatik bodoh seperti kodok dibawah tempurung yang tak punya sumbangan apa-apa buat kemanusiaan.

Bayangkanlah kata-katanya Tanah airku adalah alam semesta Aku warganegara dunia kemanusiaan

John Lennon dalam lagunya Imagine mengatakan hal yang sama. MSF Medicins Sans Frontieres atau Doctors without borders juga mengatakan yang sama.

Mereka menolong siapa saja kapan saja dan dimana saja. Tanpa pandang bangsa negara apalagi agama dan seribu perbatasan lainnya Imagine that

Itulah yang menyebabkan 73 tahun setelah ia tiada buku-bukunya penyair Khalil Gibran masih saja terjual di toko-toko buku dimana saja. Ia dibaca oleh siapa saja kapan saja Ia tak punya perbatasan.

Perjalanan Hidup Sang Pujangga Besar Khalil Gibran

1883
Gibran is born in Besharri, a town in what is now northern Lebanon that is surrounded by the famed “Cedars of Lebanon,” near what is called the “Holy Valley.” His family is of modest circumstances. His father, Khalil, clerked in his uncle’s apothecary shop before becoming so indebted from gambling that he was reduced to becoming a strong man for Raji Bey, a local Ottoman-appointed administrator. Kahlil’s mother Kamila had a child, Butrus or Peter, from her first marriage. Gibran and his mother have a close, understanding relationship that nourishes his artistic tendencies. These are discouraged by his father, however. The family grows with the birth of two sisters: Mariana and Sultana.

1895
Gibran’s father, a rough man with a bad temper, alienates his wife and children. When his patron, Raji Bey, is dismissed because of extensive complaints by angry subjects, the elder Gibran is investigated and jailed on graft charges. While the father remains in jail in Besharri, Kamila and her four children emigrate to Boston in hopes of escaping misery. Industrious and devoted, Butrus/Peter assures the family its livelihood and allows Gibran to study. Kahlil shows talent at drawing and, at age 12, begins to learn English.

1896
Gibran discovers Denison House, an establishment in Boston that encourages artistic creativity among the slum children and immigrants. Late in that year he first meets avant-garde Boston photographer Fred Holland Day, who befriends young Kahlil and has a significant artistic and intellectual impact on him.

1897
Moved by a desire to complete his Arabic-language education, Gibran returns to Lebanon and attends al-Hikmah high school in Beirut, where he pursues a reformist Arabic curriculum. He also studies religion and ethics.

1902
Gibran returns to Boston, now aged 19. Develops a friendship, then romantic feelings for a young Bostonian woman, Josephine Peabody, a poet and intellectual. In the same year, he loses to tuberculosis his sister Sultana, his half-brother Peter, and his mother Kamila. Gibran finds consolation and encouragement with his sister Mariana and his friend Josephine.

1904
Meets Mary Haskell, an American school headmistress in Boston who supported promising young orphans. Marks the beginning of a lifelong friendship that sometimes veered toward romance. It is owing to Mary that he will be able to devote himself to his painting. .

1905
Gibran publishes a slight collection of essays at the al-Muhajir Press, on “Music.” Encouraged by the director of the al-Muhajir newspaper, Gibran begins publishing the prose poems that will later be collected into Arabic books such as A Tear and a Smile and Storms, and which have recently been translated into English as The Vision, The Storm, and The Beloved

1906
Gibran publishes Spirit Brides (`Ará’is al-Murúj) in New York in Arabic. Its realist approach to social problems such as oppression of women and religious hypocrisy creates a stir among the expatriate Arab intellectuals. In wake of Josephine Peabody’s departure from his life, has affair with pianist Gertrude Barrie.

1908
Gibran publishes a second book of short stories in Arabic, Spirits Rebellious. At 25 years of age, Gibran begins his two-year stay in Paris, paid for by Mary Haskell, where he studies painting and is influenced by the reigning school of Symbolism. He spends much time in ateliers and museums. It is probably not true that he met Rodin at this time, but he was certainly immersed in the same Symbolist artistic currents within which the latter worked.

1910
Back to Boston. Romance deepens with Mary Haskell, but then she pulls back, apparently in part because she fears to cross the then race barrier and risk her place in society. Gibran joins “Golden Links Society” of Arab-American writers and intellectuals. Publishes in Cairo a collection of prose poems, Beyond the Imagination

1911
Begins work on his first English-language manuscript, “The Madman.” Meets and draws Yeats. Is deeply impressed but criticizes him for his hyper-nationalism.

1912
Broken Wings, his only novel, a story of love thwarted by greed and convention and male chauvinism, is published in New York in Arabic. Begins correspondence with Syrian-Egyptian intellectual and writer, May Ziadeh. Gibran moves to New York for good. Meets and draws `Abdu’l-Baha (1844-1921), then leader of the Baha’i faith. Is impressed but objects to latter’s emphasis on peace. He argues that there are restless young nations like his own, wishing to get free of the Ottoman yoke, and that youth is a time for a few good such fights.

1913
Meets and draws Carl Jung, is introduced to Jungian philosophy.

1914
Arabic anthology of his newspaper prose poems, “A Tear and a Smile,” is published in New York by Nasib Arida. Exhibits paintings at Montross Gallery on Fifth Avenue–a rare success, since most galleries resisted Gibran’s work on grounds of its excessive nudity and modernism.

1916
At age 33, Gibran’s feelings of Syrian nationalism and resentment of Ottoman rule grow, as famine ravages the Levant. He becomes active in raising relief funds in the U.S. for the starving. Through his friendship with Jungian James Oppenheim, he becomes associated with the new literary journal, Seven Arts, and publishes several prose poems in English there. This journal also published Eugene O’Neill, D.H. Lawrence, Sherwood Anderson, Theodore Dreiser, John Dos Passos and H.L. Mencken.

1917
Gibran exhibition by M. Knoedler & Co. on Fifth Avenue.

1918
Publication of The Madman in English, which inaugurates a new literary career.

1919
Publication of his long ode in classical Arabic, al-Mawakib (The Procession) by Mir’at al-Gharb. Knopf brings out his Twenty Drawings.

1920
Creation of the literary circle al-Rabitah al-Qalamiyyah or “Pen League,” which groups Arab writers in New York dedicated to modernism such as Amin Rihani, Mikhail Naimy and Gibran. Gibran publishes The Forerunner. Meets with Rabindranath Tagore, and defends American technology to him. His humorous anecdotes about famous writers appear in book form in Alexandria, Egypt.

1923
Appearance of The Prophet. Its lyricism and simple style make it an immediate and considerable success. Continues correspondence with May Ziadeh of Cairo. Mary Haskell moves to Savannah Georgia and virtually goes out of Gibran’s life, leaving him bereft of her close friendship and editorial collaboration. She marries Col. Jacob Minis. Second edition of Storms, a collection of prose poems, appears in Cairo.

1924
Gibran’s work on Arabic canons of eloquence appears in Cairo.

1925
Becomes associated with New Orient Magazine at invitation of Syud Hossain. Gibran embroiled in a real estate deal that goes bad, sapping his energy for a year.

1927
His collection of aphorisms, Kingdom of the Imagination appears in Cairo.

1928
Publication of Jesus, Son of Man. Friendship begins with Barbara Young. He pursues his painting and writing. In ill health and pain, Gibran drinks heavily, despite the Prohibition.

1931
The Earth Gods is published in March. April 10 Gibran dies in a New York hospital. The New York Sun announces in its obituary, “A Prophet is Dead.” His body is shipped back to Lebanon, and an immense procession follows his coffin from Beirut to Besharri. In following years thousands of visitors will tread the narrow path that leads to the convent of Mar Sarkis, where he rests in the shadow of a boulder, very close to the Holy Valley.
__________
(HPK DOc.)

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